Power Transformer Pdf

Recalibration is neither required nor possible. We need to tell LTSpice these are transformer. TRANSFORMER • A transformer is a static device. The transformer was immediately taken offline and internally inspected to identify any problems. Since its humble beginnings in 1972, Rex has quickly emerged as a competitive and innovative supplier of high-quality CSA certified and UL listed power magnetic products for markets in North America. 3v, Weight 14 lbs. AC/DC Switch Mode Power Supply Design Guide Fairchild is the only semiconductor supplier that provides a complete portfolio for AC/DC switch mode power supplies. AC voltage is preferable to DC voltage for transformer testing because AC voltage simulates the internal stress that the transformers face during operating conditions. For star/star-connected transformers and autotransformers normally a tertiary wind-ing in delta, whose rating is a third of that of the transformer, has to be added. The global power transformer market size was valued at $27. The efficiency of electrical equipment like transformers and induction motors is indicated by the term power factor. R-Core Transformers A more recent development is the "R" core, which you can think of as a cross between the C-core and a true toroidal core. Power fuses are simple to install and require no mainte- nance of any kind-even after years inattention, power fuses will operate properly. Since, there is no rotating or moving part, so a transformer is a static device. ), frequently 40°C or 45°C. Time has elapsed. Power transformers differ from other transformer types in that they are designed to comply with regulatory requirements for mains power interfacing, working at mains voltages and relatively high currents. Terminal marking of power transformers is determined by ANSI standards. Julian Guild Sales Specialist A Australia Over a 38 year career with A , Julian has held a variety of roles in transformer design, product development, software, manufacturing, design management and sales & marketing. pdf Author: albertocracco Created Date: 2/11/2013 11:00:40 AM Keywords (). Starting with the development of the 154kV high-voltage transformer in 1969, Hyosung introduced the 345kV and the 765kV transformers subsequently for the first time in the country, and the sixth in the world. Power Transformers Pdf. ASTOR Transformer offers a comprehensive portfolio of products and services in the area of Power and Distribution Transformers with the product range from 50 kVA up to 250 MVA, 300 kV and cast resin dry type transformer from 50 kVA up to 25 MVA, 36 kV with 20. • A soft-iron-core transformer is very useful where the transformer must be physically small, yet efficient. Transformers Open Core and Coil Transformers Rev. -2 Page 2 of 42 Power Transformer Power Transformer TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMER 1. This is a very basic definition of transformer. Power Transformer Transformer First Class Our power transformers are produced with ratings from 30MVA for system voltages up to 72. - is carefully covered with some form of electrical insulation. Transformers may be classified according to dielectric insulation material as follows: • Oil-filled transformers• Dry type transformers. pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. The power transformers are used in the transmission networks of higher voltages. Summer Training presentation based on power transformer construction in BHEL Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 5 Phasor Diagram for a Loaded Transformer, Assuming the Voltage Drop in the Windings to be Negligible. Transformer losses are broadly classified as no-load and load losses. power transmission dust,line. is usually 400 V. Transformers with power ratings above some ten MVA are a key element in the supply of large regions or industrial areas. The Distribution Transformers are important links in the chain of power distribution systems. The failure of capacitors can lead to short-circuit, damage to the circuit and sometimes even explosion. Issuu company logo. Percentage impedance will be same on single phase basis or three phase basis as ohmic. 3 Tank The tank is primarily the container of the oil and a physical protection for the active part of the transformer. NEMA has no power, nor does it undertake to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. Line voltage, or primary voltage, is the voltage from the source. ppt [Schreibgeschützt] Author: e0104544 Created Date: 1/16/2008 11:39:11 AM. 4 Transformers for HVDC converters 681. Two coils p 1 & p 2 and s 1 & s 2 are. Designing Wide-band Transformers for HF and VHF Power Amplifiers By Chris Trask, N7ZWY The author describes the alternatives available in the design of transformers for solid state RF amplifiers. It is the most commonly used standard used through-out the world for the past 30 years. A power transformer is the most costly and essential equipment piece of equipment within an electrical substation. The main function transformer is to transform the power from one circuit to another circuit at a constant frequency. 02 Civil work such as transformer foundation, cable trenches etc. Keywords: transformer, testing, maintenance, dissolved gas analysis, life of transformer 1. , “The Silicon p-n-p-n Switch and Controlled Rectifier (Thyristor),” IEEE Transactions on. By cooling type, the power transformer market is segmented into oil-cooled and power-cooled. For a transformer using a sine or square wave, one needs to know the incoming line voltage, the operating frequency, the secondary voltage(s), the secondary current(s), the permissible temperature rise, the target efficiency, the physical size one can use, and the cost limitations. , to be increased) or stepped- down (i. For power losses, I start at a 10% increase in the input power, assuming a 90% efficient transformer. Transformers are available at Mouser Electronics from industry leading manufacturers. Short-circuit duty of power transformers 3rd edition. POWER TRANSFORMER TESTING Transformers may be tested using AC or DC voltage. installation because the degree of protection. 4 Transformers for HVDC converters 681. As such it is desirable to perform various preventative maintenance activities to ensure the transformer maintains a high level of performance and a long functional life. 2 Principle of Action of a Transformer. SCOPE: This specification covers design, engineering, manufacture & assembly of 3-Phase, 400/220/33 KV 315MVA, 220/132/33 KV 200 & 160 MVA, 220/33 KV 100, 80 MVA & 50. Core losses: Significantly contribute to the temperature rise of a transformer. Keywords: Power electronics, Generator, Distribution Transformer, IEC, ANSI 1. This formula is the reason copper losses are sometimes. Drive Isolation Transformer Catalog (NRCan 2019 efficiency) – HPS Tribune E. The global power transformer market was estimated to be over 11,300 units in 2013 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5. IEC 60076 - Power Transformers Package enable users to test liquid-immersed power transformers, dry-type, gas filled, frequency response, reactor, short circuit, and more. These transformers are used in distribution systems to interface step up and step down voltages. com • This Datasheet: poe-power-transformers. Assume, for the sake of simplicity, that the core of an isolation transformer has only two windings in the window area, a primary and a secondary. ambient applicable arrangement assembly axial bushing calculated capacitance carried cause Check circuit clamping coil component conductors connected cooling core covered density depends dielectric direction distribution drying earth effect electrical elements equipment factor fault field Figure flow flux forces frequency give given heat higher impedance impulse increase indicator insulation laminations leads leakage length limits load loss magnetic manufacturing material maximum mean. In core type transformer the ratio of depth to width of core varies between 1. 278 Unit 14. 5% HV side: LV rating: 400–720 V (special designs for up to 12 kV can be built). The electrical energy is transferred from one electrical circuit to another through a magnetic field. In reality, the transformer consumes some of the power. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 322-5800 F: (877) 322-4774 [email protected] BS EN 60076-1:2011 - Power transformers. 3CPT5-95-15. They are designed for maximum efficiency of 100%. haloelectronics. All electrical equipment works with a degree of efficiency which may be poor or excellent. · Repair time vs. Specialized transformer devices 45. The primary uses of three-phase transformer banks in three-phase ac power circuits are summarized below. • A Flyback transformer provides galvanic (electrical) isolation up to ~5 kV DC,. Thermal Overload Protection of Power Transformers – Operating Theory and Practical Experience 2005 Georgia Tech Protective Relaying Conference 3 Transformer Heating No-load losses and load losses are the two significant sources of heating considered in thermal modeling of power transformers. Karsai, 1987, Elsevier, Distribution for the U. 96-1989 that you can have a 20-yr life expectancy for the insulation system in a transformer. Control Power Transformer e Model 3CPT3-60-15. Transformers are available at Mouser Electronics from industry leading manufacturers. The product of the voltage and the current gives the apparent power, S. Power transformers are available at Mouser Electronics from industry leading manufacturers. The composition of a transformer core depends on such as factors voltage, current, and frequency. 00 +/- 10% tolerance 40 45 As shown in drg no: 31653215 ,R0 2500x2700x2400 3600 10665. Voltage Regulation of Transformer at Unity Power Factor. Time has elapsed. Qty is required. Every transformer owner therefore requires implementation of the best practices available to effectively manage transformer life and in turn get a good return on investment and revenue from the asset, and to minimize costly failures. Hence potential transformer is that type transformer which protect from over voltage and also in earth fault protection. We expect an endless supply, and usually we have it. Change the rate switch to different positions and listen for an audible change in the transformer hum. Two coils p 1 & p 2 and s 1 & s 2 are. One power transformer costs to 4 Crores approximately. So we know all values to calculate secondary turns of ferrite core transformer. Transformer Market 2019: Analysis, Size, Share, Business Development and Regional Overview by 2023 - Transformers cover a very diverse subject area that encompasses both, small and very large components. • Transmission voltages of 230 kV, 345 kV, 500 kV, and 765 kV is common. In an ordinary transformer, the primary and secondary windings are wound near each other so that whenever there is a change of voltage across the primary there is a corresponding change in the. Tags: difference between power transformer and current transformer difference between power and potential transformer instrument transformer pdf. Transformer Taps & Power Flow Operations-Training-Solutions 3 4. Transformer cooling fans are sturdy, weatherproof fans for accelerating the cooling process in oil-cooled electrical transformers. 1 The autotransformer shall be used for bi-directional flow of rated power. ppt [Schreibgeschützt] Author: e0104544 Created Date: 1/16/2008 11:39:11 AM. Buchholz relay is used between conservator tank and main tank in transformers having capacity more than one MVA. Siemens power transformers can be integrated into any kind of power management system. LESSON 11: TRANSFORMER NAME PLATE DATA AND CONNECTIONS ET 332b Ac Motors, Generators and Power Systems 1 Lesson 11_et332b. Universal Chassis Mount power transformers offer a huge array of nominal secondary voltages. Avel Lindberg Y236852 625VA 35V+35V Toroidal Transformer. The company was founded in the 1930’s by John Nothelfer as a transformer repair shop – Nothelfer Winding Laboratories, hence the name NWL. A transformer has no moving parts and is a completely. The basic step to building a transformer is to create the model of the object. These services are handled by expert’s team who has more. Buy 4-up $54. A distribution transformer provides the final voltage transformation in the electric power distribution system by reducing the high voltage current from a power line to a lower voltage for use in a building. A 40-year-old transformer showed a degree of polymerization of 260 in early 2010 during testing, with estimated remaining life at 19 percent. Different cooling methods of transformers are - Air Natural , Air Blast, Oil Natural. The correct sizing of current transformers is required to ensure satisfactory operation of measuring instruments and protection relays. Insulating transformer Autotransformer. The temperature rise of a transformer is due to the power loss dissipated by the transformer in the form of heat. Transformer loss is sometimes limited directly by the need to achieve a required overall power supply efficiency. 235 Transformers 5. com • [email protected] Industrial Control Transformers Class 9070 Catalog R05/19 9070CT99015 www. Different cooling methods of transformers are - Air Natural , Air Blast, Oil Natural. It also provides a low reluctance path to the flow of magnetic flux. The wire itself is usually copper or aluminum, which is known to be a good conductor of the electric current that powers your equipment. Transformer. Flyer - 4900 Series Power Transfomers for PC Board Mounting pdf English Terms and Conditions Please carefully read the disclaimer before using any of this data. A transformer works on the principle of mutual induction. In today's transformers % impedance varies 2-6 % for distribution units and 6-25 % for power transformers. The following should be expected on CHL power factors: Power transformers: 2. POWER TRANSFORMER TESTING SWP Check this is the latest Process Zone version before use. Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and J. Losses Power transformer losses can be divided into two main components: no-load losses and load losses. 0% at 20 °C for “service aged” liquid filled power transformers • PFs between 0. Transformers in Power Systems • Typically in power systems, voltages get transformed approximately five times between generation and delivery to the users. transformer failure and what can be done to reduce the risk, including: · The direct economic impact of repairing or replacing the transformer. · Repair time vs. C electrical power from one voltage to another Voltage keeping The frequency same by | Find, read and cite all the research you need on. Transformer operates on an ac supply. A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without changing frequency. 5 Phasor Diagram for a Loaded Transformer, Assuming the Voltage Drop in the Windings to be Negligible. rev 050919. In a delta connected ( Dd ) group of transformers, the line voltage, V L is equal to the supply voltage, V L = V S. Mouser is an authorized distributor for many power transformer manufacturers including Eaton, Hammond, Murata, Pulse, Tamura, TE Connectivity, Triad, White-Rodgers, Wurth & more. INTRODUCTION Power transformers are ones of the most important components of electric networks. Under this construction, the input power and the output power are electrically separated by an dielectric insulation barrier. The construction of a transformer depends upon the application. Transformers Open Core and Coil Transformers Rev. Single-Phase has two lines of AC power. 3 Two view construction standard detail of a conventional transformer to be installed on the distribution system. We expect an endless supply, and usually we have it. 21–48) showed that tap changers were the source of some 40% of transformer faults. The very best power protection comes from a special type of transformer known as a Constant Voltage Transformer ( CVT). An electrical transformer is an static device, hence mechanical losses (like windage or friction losses) are absent in it. Power Transformers When there is the need of transforming heavy loads at higher voltages, or where applications may require step-up or step-down use, Prolec GE Large Power Transformers are the choice for users. Power transformer maintenance includes periodic electrical testing of different parameters of the transformer, being common the periodic checking of some key magnitudes such as turns ratio, excitation current, polarization index, insulation resistance, tandelta, winding resistance, short circuit impedance, etc. pdf), Text File (. Power Transformers Sectional Committee, ETD 16 FOREWORD This Indian Standard (Part 1) (Second Revision) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the draft finalized by the Power Transformers Sectional Committee had been approved by the Electrotechnical Division Council. pptx LEARNING OBJECTIVES After this presentation you will be able to: Identify transformer polarity using dot and conventional labeling. Low Voltage Distribution Product Catalog (DOE 2016/NRCan 2019 efficiency) – HPS Sentinel. -Transformer can isolate two circuits electrically. Transformers can be segmented on the basis of type as distribution transformer, power transformer and others, which includes instrument transformer. You just need to inspect the abnormality and act with the solution procedure. The temperature rise of a transformer is due to the power loss dissipated by the transformer in the form of heat. Transformer Classifications • Distribution • Rated 500 kVA and Below • Up to 34. The power is equal to the current times the voltage (watts = volts x amps is one way to remember this), so you can see the power in the. MAIN COMPONENTS OF A POWER TRANSFORMER Figure 4. Title: CELME Power Transformers. The leakage flux in the core is zero. We thank you for your support and understanding. mon form of transformer, designed mainly for galvanic isolation, though it will also inhibit RF and block DC. 00 SERVICES & EQUIPMENT TO BE EXCLUDED 4. 12 volts AC input produces a B+ of about 240 VDC when under load. Guidance for impulse testing of power transformers is given in IEC 60722. Transformers with power ratings above some ten MVA are a key element in the supply of large regions or industrial areas. TRANSFORMER • A transformer is a static device. Part #122-620 Qty. The number represents 37. A power transformer is a passive electromagnetic device that transfers energy from one circuit to another circuit by means of inductive coupling. Steel itself is a conductor, and changing lines of magnetic flux also induce a voltage and current in this conductor. Industry Trends. Holonyak, Jr. Buchholz relay is used between conservator tank and main tank in transformers having capacity more than one MVA. Oil of a muddy colouration is certain to be wet. Prepare to measure the circuit voltages. Transformers, Impedance Matching and Maximum Power Transfer Introduction The transformer is a device that takes AC at one voltage and transforms it into another voltage either higher or lower than the original voltage. In fact equivalent circuit of any electrical device is necessary for its performance analysis and to find any scope of further design modification. Assume, for the sake of simplicity, that the core of an isolation transformer has only two windings in the window area, a primary and a secondary. Machines a. Ramsis Girgis and Kiran Vadante, "Effect of GIC on Power Transformers & Power Systems," presented at May 2014 IEEE Power Systems Relaying Committee meeting. Transformer's degree of protection: IP rating, see separate section. The power which you can get out of this arrangement is, of course, limited to the power handling rating of the individual transformers. A Transformer is a static apparatus, with no moving parts, which transforms electrical power from one circuit to another with changes in voltage and current and no change in frequency. No data sourced from DNSP Ausnet(although info provided from TNSP). Machines a. The electrical energy is transferred from one electrical circuit to another through a magnetic field. Supply authorities are under obligation to their customers to maintain the supply voltage between certain limits. This high frequency power transformer plays a central role in the overall topology and its analysis is the subject of this paper. Power transformers differ from other transformer types in that they are designed to comply with regulatory requirements for mains power interfacing, working at mains voltages and relatively high currents. • In the operation of power systems, transformers are required to change the voltage levels throughout the network - three-phase circuits use three-phase transformers • can be achieved by using a bank of three single-phase transformers • may be a 3-phase unit having three primary windings and three secondary windings on a 3-legged core. pptx LEARNING OBJECTIVES After this presentation you will be able to: Identify transformer polarity using dot and conventional labeling. The power is equal to the current times the voltage (watts = volts x amps is one way to remember this), so you can see the power in the. Center tap transformer for transistor amplifier. 01 Installation of transformer at site. The IEC 60076 - Power Transformers Package provides application guidance on variance types of power transformers. In its simplest form, a transformer consists of two conducting coils having a mutual inductance. shows the electrical equivalent circuit of the transformer, including the magnetizing in-ductance and parasitic leakage inductance appor-tioned to primary and secondary windings. pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. In a delta connected ( Dd ) group of transformers, the line voltage, V L is equal to the supply voltage, V L = V S. , is a Silicon Valley-based supplier of high-performance electronic components used in high-voltage power-conversion systems. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Check the excitation characteristics of the transformer. • The primary coil, which receives energy from the ac source. Shell form & core form transformer construction - 3 legged stacked core-Each phase shares a core bar. EE19 TRANSFORMER PDF - Buy low price, high quality ee19 transformer with worldwide shipping on EF EE EE19/ EE20/20/5 EF EE EE25/ EF EE EE EE30/30/7 EF32 Standard form for use in. Delta Star specializes in engineering and manufacturing of high quality transformers up to 315 kV, 300MVA in both single and three phase configurations up to 1175 BIL. constructing, and maintaining power delivery systems must keep pace with the escalating demand of such development. These windings are mechanically strong and hence can withstand stresses during short circuit conditions. 4 Transformers for HVDC converters 681. ppt [Schreibgeschützt] Author: e0104544 Created Date: 1/16/2008 11:39:11 AM. Flyback is the most popular topology for low-power (~75 W) AC/DC conversion applications: • A Flyback transformer combines the actions of an isolating transformer and an output inductor into a single element [1] hence, no separate inductor is needed. Various purposes which dictate the use of a tertiary winding are enumerated below: To supply the substation auxiliaries at a voltage different from those of the primary and secondary windings. One disadvantage of delta connected three phase transformers is that each transformer must be wound for the full-line voltage, (in our example above 100V) and for. IEC 60076-2 (2011) Power transformers – Part 2: Temperature rise for liquid-immersed transformers IEC 60076-3 (2013) Power transformers – Part 3: Insulation levels, dielectric tests and external clearances in air IEC 60076-5 (2006) Power transformers – Part 5: Ability to withstand short circuit. is usually 400 V. 1 Generator transformers 661 7. 3V AC heater winding, and a 24V AC winding to power solid state circuitry. Businesses that require three-phase power need to add an extra component in the formula to arrive at the correct transformer size, i. The most frequent attention given to power transformers is visual inspection, which involves mainly checking the transformer's general exterior condition and cooling system. Transformers 1 kVA and larger, rated at 60 Hz,. POWER TRANSFORMERS AND SAFETY • How to install, operate and work with High Voltage Power Transformers safely • Earthing of HV Transformers TRANSFORMER THEORY • Electrical values and their definition in a power transformer - Voltage, Current, Number of turns, Impedance and their interrelation OPERATION OF POWER TRANSFORMERS IN A POWER SYSTEM. Power Transformers Sectional Committee, ETD 16 FOREWORD This Indian Standard (Part 1) (Second Revision) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the draft finalized by the Power Transformers Sectional Committee had been approved by the Electrotechnical Division Council. Power Transformer Protection 1. The right pic shows a stereo Leak amplifier. The Transformer. , “The Silicon p-n-p-n Switch and Controlled Rectifier (Thyristor),” IEEE Transactions on. In core type transformer the ratio of depth to width of core varies between 1. Terminal marking of power transformers is determined by ANSI standards. - Building a small core is so much easier than it is for a large core, so that the more sophisticated construction does not present such an obstacle in manufacture. Power transformers – Introduction to measurement of losses 7 2. Summer Training presentation based on power transformer construction in BHEL Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Many precautions are taken to safeguard them against failure because. Although C-core audio transformers for tube amplifiers have had fairly wide acceptance (at least in Europe and Japan), C-core power transformers are not common in audio equipment. Avel Lindberg Y236852 625VA 35V+35V Toroidal Transformer. Q & A on Moisture in Transformer Oil Steven Jiroutek Business Development Manager - Industrial Measurements Sales Americas Senja Leivo Senior Industry Expert - Industrial Measurements Product Management A unique opportunity to answer your specific questions about Moisture in Transformer Oil Behavior. AC line power is a viable option in some applications: Plug Load However, this form of AC-to-DC power conversion has some significant limits. 0% for liquid filled power transformers • PF < 2. Remove covers and panels as necessary to gain access to the circuits that contain the transformer. Transformers So a step-down transformer with 100 coils in the primary and 10 coils in the secondary will reduce the voltage by a factor of 10 but multiply the current by a factor of 10 at the same time. Our power transformers go beyond MV. Holonyak, Jr. cond* notes check point. pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. It works on law mutual induction as in simple transformer. -Transformer can isolate two circuits electrically. The main purpose of this test is theto ensure that the construction rules concerning leakage paths and clearances have been followed. Supply authorities are under obligation to their customers to maintain the supply voltage between certain limits. 1) What is a transformer and how does it work? A transformer is an electrical apparatus designed to convert alternating current from one voltage to another. Figure 4: Simpli ed equivalent circuit of a transformer 4 E ciency E ciency of the transformer is de ned as: = output power input power Interms of losses, = output power output power+ iron losses+copper losses Let ‘S’ be the rated VA of the transformer, ‘x’ is the fraction of full load the transformer is supplying, and is the load power. Current highlights. transformer overall tests 1 ch h+l @ 20ºc ir red blue gnd capacitance c (pf) measured ma watts power factor % direct gst-gnd test no freq sweep test kv corr factor insulation tested test mode hv t g test lead connections %vdf corr factor 13 h3 14 n/a 16 17 18 x1 x2 x3 15 19 dsg. 03 External power connection for HV & LV side of transformer by means of bus duct. The treat-ment throughout the Handbook is practical with very little emphasis on theory. Compute the load division between parallel transformers. A list of standards applicable to distribution transformer is given as below: • Power Transformers IEC:60076 and and all relevant parts therein. This is the. 1 Generator transformers 661 7. DOE / OE / ISER April 2014 7 are a significant factor in power transformer prices. Control Power Transformer e Model 3CPT3-60-15. A tap changer is a device fitted to power transformers for regulation of the output voltage to required levels. THE TRANSFORMER PROBLEM Little in the modern world is taken more for granted than electricity. com To calculate full load current, use this formula: Amps = KVA ÷ Volts ÷ 1. transformers. complete replacement time. Mouser is an authorized distributor for many transformer manufacturers including Hammond, Murata, Pulse, TE Connectivity, Triad, White-Rodgers & more. It step-up or step-down the voltage level from one circuit to another at almost constant power. Posted by Electrical Edition. An isolation transformer application at the rack level is shown in Figure 5. In neon transformer applications , the volt-amperes must be multipliedby the power factor tocompute the input power. Inspections are done routinely. The rated power of the transformer relates to a maximum ambient temperature (t a max. Equipment. acme - 1 phase - group i - low voltage lighting transformers & power supplies - with timer & photocell - 120 volts input - 12 volts output - 60hz click link below. Transformer Turns Ratio - Current and Turns Transformer Turns Ratio - Volts and Turns Direct Current for Current, Horsepower, Voltage, or Efficiency Tables Transformer Impedance Factors Full-load current for single-phase transformer voltage Full-load current for three-phase transformer line-to-line voltage Definitions Voltage Transformer Ratio. The most common usage of instrument transformers is to operate instruments or metering from high voltage or high current circuits, safely isolating secondary control circuitry from the high voltages or currents. TorusPower Block PB 5 and PB 10 are ultra compact and portable Toroidal Isolation Power Transformers, and the most affordable products in the Torus Power line-up. Transformers So a step-down transformer with 100 coils in the primary and 10 coils in the secondary will reduce the voltage by a factor of 10 but multiply the current by a factor of 10 at the same time. The power transformers are used in the transmission networks of higher voltages. In the paper there are described the basic diagnostic methods for preparation of appraisal of technical conditions of a bushing installed in a power transformer. A transformer works on the principle of mutual induction. 0 700-450 Moderate deterioration 1-10 450-250 Extensive deterioration >10 <250 End of life criteria Other Diagnostic Compounds. 57 150mva power transformer products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba. Ensure that all equipment to be tested is properly grounded and treat all high-voltage power equipment as energized until proven otherwise by using the proper lockout/tagout procedures. Distribution Transformer Operation. ATTACHMENTS TO THIS REPORT Attachment-1 XXXXX Calibration Certificates Attachment-2 XXXXX Guidelines for testing Power Transformers. 5% or less on newer equipment. The main reason to use a transformer is to make power of one voltage level into power of another voltage level. Control transformers are required in circuits that require steady voltage or steady current with a low power or volt-amp rating. Transformer Basic Objective • Introduce Basic Transformer Theory as it Relates to Diagnostics • Power • Rated 500 kVA and Above • Between Generation and Distribution • GSU Generator Step-Up, Autos, Transmission Class XFMRs • Autotransformers. 94 at rated load 0. Our Transformers handbooks are only available in English language, and are sold in printed copies. An alternating voltage (V p) applied to the PRIMARY creates an alternating current (I p) through. PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION Product Name: 76 Transformer Oil Product Code: 1041410 Intended Use: Insulating Oil Synonyms: Conoco Transformer Oil Phillips Transformer Oil Chemical Family: Petroleum Hydrocarbon Responsible Party: Conoco Lubricants A Division of ConocoPhillips 600 N. Connections: Transformer is provided with 8” (203mm) long, 0. 1 The transformers shall be of oil immersed type suitable for outdoor installation. There is an auto transformer and a variable auto transformer. transformer and is a large transient current which is caused by part cycle saturation of the magnetic core of the transformer. Electric Grid. Julian supports A’s full transformer product and solutions portfolio. 1 Introductory. 1 Transformer cores. HV/LV distribution transformers TRIHAL cast resin dry type transformers 160 to 3150 kVA insulation level 24 kV - low voltage 400 to 433 V - 50 Hz thermal class F - ambient 40° C, altitude 1000 m France Transfo insulation level: 17. Power Transformers Pdf. Power transformers are defined as transformers rated 500 kVA and larger (In figure 1 is shown typical power transformer). Introduction In the design of RF power amplifiers,. Transformer Turns Ratio - Current and Turns Transformer Turns Ratio - Volts and Turns Direct Current for Current, Horsepower, Voltage, or Efficiency Tables Transformer Impedance Factors Full-load current for single-phase transformer voltage Full-load current for three-phase transformer line-to-line voltage Definitions Voltage Transformer Ratio. The transformers should have same secondary winding polarity. Transformerless power supplies provide a low-cost alternative to transformer-based and switcher-based power supplies. Measuring Output - Transformer Performance Plitron Manufacturing Inc. ATTACHMENTS TO THIS REPORT Attachment-1 XXXXX Calibration Certificates Attachment-2 XXXXX Guidelines for testing Power Transformers. One disadvantage of delta connected three phase transformers is that each transformer must be wound for the full-line voltage, (in our example above 100V) and for. Fuse Protection c. Introduction As the most expensive and important equipment in electric power system [1-2], power transformer plays a vital role in maintaining reliable and efficient electricity supply. Potential Transformer (PT) Definition - The potential transformer may be defined as an instrument transformer used for the transformation of voltage from a higher value to the lower value. The Square D™ Distribution Transformer is designed to supply power throughout the building. In transformer there are primary winding and secondary winding. Switch on the power supply unit and using the output voltage dial, set the phase voltage to 200 V as shown on the virtual or conventional voltmeter E 1. A Routine test of transformer is mainly for confirming operational performance of individual unit in a production lot. SolaHD New SCP-X IP67 Power Supplies. Shunt reactors with a saturable core could also be possible. If the number of. The power loss is then used to calculate the required DCR. A fault in the windings can occur due to material faults in the cellulose isolation, see Section 3. 8 KV? The transformer enclosure should isolate the transformer sufficiently from the environment. 94 at rated load 0. Application-Specific Transformers Product Search: If you know the series, use the Search box at top. Power Transformers Pdf. This power is dissipated in the form of heat and is know as 'Hysteresis Loss'. The core has no hysteresis nor eddy currents. 5MW Generator ( output 415V, 50Hz) and generator are in star connection, for that use 4nos. In terms of average VA, the transformer needs to be 35% larger that the rating of the dc load. Transformer one of the most important topics of engineering. Current highlights. 6) are used in some under-ground systems installed in residential areas, as described in Chap. Transformer Protection Principles 45 1. complete replacement time. In the technical world, the power factor is defined as ratio of the true power of the equipment and the apparent power. The AI techniques include artificial neural networks (ANN, or briefly neural networks - NN), expert systems, fuzzy systems and multivariate regression. MIL-STD-1629A standard is used to classify different faults that occur [2]. Electrical power requirements in spacecraft are frequently met by the use of in-verter circuits that turn direct into alternating current. Predictive Power transformer maintenance as an effective maintenance system. Transformer testing has developed considerably over the past years. Ideal Transformer Transfer Functions Center-Tap Transformer Auto-Transformer (n≥1) V IZ n2 I I n V nV p p p s s p s p Fig. The Transformer. Transformers in Power Systems • Typically in power systems, voltages get transformed approximately five times between generation and delivery to the users. • In the operation of power systems, transformers are required to change the voltage levels throughout the network - three-phase circuits use three-phase transformers • can be achieved by using a bank of three single-phase transformers • may be a 3-phase unit having three primary windings and three secondary windings on a 3-legged core. Reclamation has hundreds of power transformers with voltages as low as 480 volts (V) and as high as 550 kilovolts (kV). In the past the choice used to be driven by the limitations in the processing power of digital relays and a mindset resulting from available signal processing means in analog relays. But we stated earlier that the power into a transformer is equal to the power out of the transformer, therefore the efficiency equals 100%. The number represents 37. ٦٠٣٥٤, for oil-immersed transformers, and IEC ٦٠٩٠٥, for dry-type transformers. 1 บทนํา หม อแปลง (power transformer) เป นอุปกรณ ที่จําเป นในสถาน ีและสําคัญในระบบไฟฟ า. To design an output transformer, it is necessary to determine the output power according to the tubess characteristics,. Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 40 Reference: N. Transformers can be segmented on the basis of type as distribution transformer, power transformer and others, which includes instrument transformer. It is the most commonly used standard used through-out the world for the past 30 years. 0% for liquid field distribution transformers • PF < 2. pdf: 6: Three-phase rectifier, safety power transformer for 24Vdc, 80Adc supply with RC load : CAL0006E. In core type transformer the ratio of depth to width of core varies between 1. 5% or ± 2 x 2. One of the potential applications of the High frequency high power transformer (HFHPT) is high power isolated DC-DC converters for wind energy DC collection. Edison Technical Center. txt) or view presentation slides online. Introduction In the recent development of the power systems, increase in the power plant capacity has been a major achievement in the power industry. The following schematics are free of charge and available for your sole use by registering as a user. Power Transformers Pdf. 1 of IS 2026 (Part 1)]. The wiring of these transformers is covered in. Finish: Black powder paint to match our 1650 series of output transformers Units can be run full wave bridge or full wave C. All of our products meet the standards of US/Europe/Australia, with certificates of TUV/GS, EMC, CE, BSI, KEMA, CB, NF, SEV, VDE, UL. It step-up or step-down the voltage level from one circuit to another at almost constant power. The resistance of the windings is zero. This high frequency power transformer plays a central role in the overall topology and its analysis is the subject of this paper. The transformers are classified based on voltage levels, Core medium used, winding arrangements, use and installation place, etc. Power Transformer वे होते है जो Power Generation Station पर work करते है यह High Voltage पर काम करने के लिए बने होते है size बड़ा होता है तो magnetic loss भी ज्यादा होता है. Insulating transformer Autotransformer. 120 x 50 / 1,000 = KVA. It is used in oil-filled transformers, some types of high-voltage capacitors, fluorescent lamp ballasts (North America only), and some types of high-voltage switches and circuit breakers. If the number of. Drag the slider arrows, or enter your range of values below. A wide variety of 150mva power transformer options are available to you, such as electronic, power. A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without changing frequency. The phase W is kept open. Dry-type transformer according to ANSI/EEE C57. Transformer Turns Ratio - Current and Turns Transformer Turns Ratio - Volts and Turns Direct Current for Current, Horsepower, Voltage, or Efficiency Tables Transformer Impedance Factors Full-load current for single-phase transformer voltage Full-load current for three-phase transformer line-to-line voltage Definitions Voltage Transformer Ratio. For example, if the transformers are rated 2 [email protected] volts on the secondary, then you can only pass 24 watts through this "isolation" transformer. 00 +/- 10% tolerance 40 45 As shown in drg no: 31653215 ,R0 2500x2700x2400 3600 10665. • Transmission voltages of 230 kV, 345 kV, 500 kV, and 765 kV is common. connected winding of the transformer to account for full load copper losses. Beside power loss in transformer itself, an additional power loss in electricity network is generated due to flow of reactive. Then the resulting efficiency of a transformer is equal to the ratio of the power output of the secondary winding, PS to the power input of the primary winding, PP and is therefore high. The phase W is kept open. HV/LV distribution transformers TRIHAL cast resin dry type transformers 160 to 3150 kVA insulation level 24 kV - low voltage 400 to 433 V - 50 Hz thermal class F - ambient 40° C, altitude 1000 m France Transfo insulation level: 17. This heavy duty inverter plugs directly to a 12. Recalibration is neither required nor possible. The power loss is then used to calculate the required DCR. sulating transformers can be used to make a zigzag trans­ former. It is connected above the main tank of transformer. Whether your design is 1W or 1200W, Fairchild's solutions help achieve increased efficiency, reduce stand-by power,. A rating quoted in VA will apply to small transformers. Procedure Of Transformer Testing & Commissioning. Capacitors can fail due to a number of reasons. The IEC 60076 - Power Transformers Package provides application guidance on variance types of power transformers. The result. For example, a CT with a ratio of 300:5 is rated for 300 primary amps at full load and will produce 5 amps of secondary current when 300 amps flow through the primary. It is a small tank which used in high power transformers. Returning an unhealthy unit to service may prove catastrophic. Three-phase KVA Calculation. Two-winding transformers have terminals designated by H and X (e. 5 MVA up to more than 1,000 MVA, above 30 kV up to 1,500 kV (system and system. The apparent power, Pt, of a transformer is the combined power of the primary and secondary windings which handle, Pjn and P0, to the load, respectively. Ratings, Voltage Ratio, Tapping range, Impedance and other technical parameters may be selected as per CBIP Publication No. Universal Chassis Mount power transformers offer a huge array of nominal secondary voltages. Power transformers – Introduction to measurement of losses 7 2. Testing of power transformers seems like a similar experience; and therefore ABB undertook to write this book. Then the resulting efficiency of a transformer is equal to the ratio of the power output of the secondary winding, PS to the power input of the primary winding, PP and is therefore high. 75 amps at 120 volts, or about 450 volt-amperes as shown in most neon transformer catalogs. If the secondary has 5000 coils and 1. 1 The transformers shall be of oil immersed type suitable for outdoor installation. Power Transformers is our clients’ go-to contractor when it comes to the design of cutting edge, turnkey electrical systems. It is short animation clip of 8 minutes will give you complete description of principle and construction of electrical transformer. 300w atx power supply:\r\r5v/30a, 3. Pf2 power induced in filament-2 winding Df average of Df1 and Df2 Vf average OC voltage of filament windings Rsrc HV source resistor for 6X4 lab test Ps power induced in all secondary windings Pxfmr power dissipated in the transformer Pcore power dissipated in core losses Prp power dissipated in Rp. Whether your design is 1W or 1200W, Fairchild's solutions help achieve increased efficiency, reduce stand-by power,. The change in pitch is not always discernable but if it is present, is a good sign the transformer is working properly. short circuit duty of power transformers abb pdf Keywords: Power transformer TP, Short Circuit SC and Electric Power Systems EPS. 02 Civil work such as transformer foundation, cable trenches etc. Purpose of Induced. • Generation in power systems, primarily by synchronous generators, takes place at around 20-kV level. •The efficiency of a transformer is the ratio of the output power to the input power. Induced over voltage test of transformer is one of transformer testing that carry out at manufacture factory … and this test classified under routine test of transformer & type test of transformer >>> to see full details about transformer testing click here >>> transformer testing. (a) transformers will be overheated (b) power factors of both the transformers will be same (c) parallel operation will be not possible (d) parallel operation will still be possible, but the power factors at which the two transformers operate will be different from the power factor of the common load Ans: d. 0% for liquid filled power transformers • PF < 2. 45 0 6_to 0 7 DESIGN OF CORES • For core type transformer the cross-section may be rectangular, square or stepped. 2A into 24V and approximately 20A. To determine the iron losses, open circuit test of transformer is performed. 8 KV? The transformer enclosure should isolate the transformer sufficiently from the environment. opto-isolated\rfeedback for bias supply. bias and 5v standby supply\rbased on flyback converter. Power Transformer Oil Sampling SM0701R01. 1 บทนํา หม อแปลง (power transformer) เป นอุปกรณ ที่จําเป นในสถาน ีและสําคัญในระบบไฟฟ า. 1Adc with RC-load : CAL0005e. The magnetic balance test is usually done on the star side of a transformer. 0% at 20 °C warrant additional testing and investigation NETA MTS • PF < 1. Definition of Transformer ; Electrical power transformer is a static device which transforms electrical energy from one circuit to another without any direct electrical connection and with the help of mutual induction between two windings. These windings are mechanically strong and hence can withstand stresses during short circuit conditions. Method 1 Substation with a single transformer When the plant foresees installation of an. Can 60 Hz transformers be operated at 50 Hz? ACME transformers rated below 1 kVA can be used on 50 Hz service. Since its humble beginnings in 1972, Rex has quickly emerged as a competitive and innovative supplier of high-quality CSA certified and UL listed power magnetic products for markets in North America. Depending on whether it is a small transformer or power transformer:. connected winding of the transformer to account for full load copper losses. The power transformers are used in the transmission networks of higher voltages. Medium and large power transformers in distribution or transmission power system are often. For the 21st century, a new kind of power electronics transformer is developed one that can be made self-regulating, coil- free, and able to correct power quality problems. Transformer Equation Notes This file contains a more detailed derivation of the transformer equations than the notes or the experiment 3 write-up. 3 FIGURE 15. The output power of an ideal transformer equals to its input power - to be expected since assumed no loss. section b - equipment data section c - visual and electrical/mechanical inspection. Grounding Ventilated core and coil assemblies are solidly grounded to the enclosure. • When circular coils are required for distribution and power transformers, the square and stepped cores are used. Biela Laboratory for High Power Electronic Systems, ETH Zurich, Switzerland ABSTRACT Microseconds range pulse modulators based on solid state technology often utilize a pulse transformer, since it could offer an inherent current balancing for parallel. A further influence on transformer insertion loss is high AC or DC current. Technical Specification for 33/11kV Power Transformers ( APDRP Scheme ) PAGE 2 OF 72 IEC 606 Application guide for power transformers. 1-800-387-2840. Large power transformers by K. The principle parts of a transformer and their functions are: • The core, which makes a path for the magnetic flux. This looks like two inductors are in the circuit. Three Winding Transformer: Three Winding Transformer may be built with a third winding, called the tertiary, in addition to the primary and secondary. can continue to operate after an interruption of the input power. When a transformer is on phase shift control, the transformer phase shift angle automatically changes to keep the MW flow through the transformer (measured at the regulated bus end) between the minimum and. Power transformers 3. Power Measurements Power is measured in ac systems using wattmeters. magamp\rregula-tor for 3. 7 All floor mounted transformers are provided with skid type under-base with. Overcurrent and Thermal Protection a. SCOTT T TRANSFORMER APPLICATION. Since the power factor of a transformer is unity or close to unity, the volt-ampere rating provides the engineer the ease to calculate the output and input expeditiously. Dry-type transformers are available in three standard temperature rises: 80C, 115C, or 150C. Large power transformers by K. View Catalog in PDF format. MLGW began to test each of its transformers for furans in 2009. Three-phase transformer banks allow the voltages in the three-phase ac power circuit to be stepped-up (i. The very best power protection comes from a special type of transformer known as a Constant Voltage Transformer ( CVT). Power Transformer is an electrical device that converts inbound electricity to a higher or lower value of voltage for specific purposes. The power is equal to the current times the voltage (watts = volts x amps is one way to remember this), so you can see the power in the. NON-CONFORMANCES NCR # DESCRIPTION DATE RAISED DATE CLOSED - - 8. Like the power transformer, the current transformer also contains a primary and a secondary winding. Ensure only trained persons shall operate the power tools. Lab 3: Power Transformer Open and Short Circuit Tests Objectives. Figure 3 (a) shows a phasor diagram for the case of a resistive load (unity power factor) on the transformer (i. current (“leakage excitation” or “transformer excitation”), obtained with equal and opposite amp-turns in the two windings. The Handbook of Electric Power Calculationsprovides detailed step-by-step calculation procedures commonly encountered in electrical engineering. Ensure service area/work area openings are provided with barricade, tape, and safety nets. Insulating transformer Autotransformer. EU documentation requires compliance with specification EN 61 558 of the Low Voltage Directive. All BSI British Standards available online in electronic and print formats. Aurangabad, Maharashtra B2, Kasliwal Puran , Aurangabad , Aurangabad - 431001 , Maharashtra. The transformer bushing is one of the most critical components of a power transformer and one of the major initiators of transformer failures. operating damages of bushings in transformers installed in the national power system. but nowadays we can use SMPS circuit also. txt) or view presentation slides online. transformers as well as allowing for the operation of transformers with aged insulation. The transformer core is built of iron or steel, and it provides the magnetic circuit to link the transformer windings. Scott connection is a method of achieving 3 phase to 2 -phase transformation by using two single-phase transformers. A transformer can be defined as a static device which helps in the transformation of electric power in one circuit to electric power of the same frequency in another circuit. They are designed for maximum efficiency of 100%. Regularly performing a range of standard electrical tests has proven an effective way to gain a reliable insight into the operating condition of your transformers and can extend their lifespan. Maxim's transformer drivers grant system designers greater flexibility by using the winding ratio of an external transformer, which allows the selection of virtually any isolated output voltage. the functioning state of the power transformer. This formula is the reason copper losses are sometimes. A list of standards applicable to distribution transformer is given as below: • Power Transformers IEC:60076 and and all relevant parts therein. Like the power transformer, the current transformer also contains a primary and a secondary winding. Overcurrent and Thermal Protection a. 80 power factor load. routine tests conducted in distribution transformers of rating up to 2500KVA and 36KV class. This approximate analysis will show the symmetrical nature of leakage °ux and will allow the establishment of the foundations for a diagnosis procedure. Inspections are done routinely. For outdoor use, transformers are. of rectifier transformers (1 no. In addition some other tests are also carried out by the consumer at site before commissioning and also periodically…. Induced over voltage test of transformer is one of transformer testing that carry out at manufacture factory … and this test classified under routine test of transformer & type test of transformer >>> to see full details about transformer testing click here >>> transformer testing. This would be even more challenging if, unlike line frequency power transformers, oil cooled design is not a preference. -Transformers should be plugged into power strips, each containing a circuit breaker and an on/off switch so all power to the layout can be cut off quickly at the first sign of trouble. then carry information about the power figures at which the transformer fulfils the temperature-rise limitations when these alternatives apply [see 7. Power Transformer. We are specialist toroidal transformer manufacturers and experts in the field. • The transformer impedance is usually between 7%and 10% (based in OA rating) The Autotransformer. The following schematics are free of charge and available for your sole use by registering as a user. 0 percent or less. When a transformer is on phase shift control, the transformer phase shift angle automatically changes to keep the MW flow through the transformer (measured at the regulated bus end) between the minimum and. Returning an unhealthy unit to service may prove catastrophic. • A Flyback transformer provides galvanic (electrical) isolation up to ~5 kV DC,. da form 7464-r, aug 2002. Induced over voltage test of transformer is one of transformer testing that carry out at manufacture factory … and this test classified under routine test of transformer & type test of transformer >>> to see full details about transformer testing click here >>> transformer testing. Transformers are critical parts in the power grid. 5 kV and MV transformers with rated power above 3-4 MVA have usually as main protection a differential protection for winding faults - short-circuits between turns of a winding or between windings that correspond to phase-to-phase or three-phase type short-circuits. The details are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. ambient applicable arrangement assembly axial bushing calculated capacitance carried cause Check circuit clamping coil component conductors connected cooling core covered density depends dielectric direction distribution drying earth effect electrical elements equipment factor fault field Figure flow flux forces frequency give given heat higher impedance impulse increase indicator insulation laminations leads leakage length limits load loss magnetic manufacturing material maximum mean. Iron-core transformers are usually used when the source frequency is low (below 20 kHz). In this book we have laid down important aspects on transformer. of rectifier transformers (1 no. Power Transformers Pdf. The basic principle of the current transformer is the same as that of the power transformer. Transformers Open Core and Coil Transformers Rev. Meares and Charles E. Power transformers are defined as transformers rated 500 kVA and larger (In figure 1 is shown typical power transformer). -Transformers should be plugged into power strips, each containing a circuit breaker and an on/off switch so all power to the layout can be cut off quickly at the first sign of trouble. Three-phase pad-mounted compartmental type transformer General At Eaton’s Cooper Power Systems, we are constantly striving to introduce new innovations to the transformer industry, bringing you the highest quality, most reliable transformers. SolaHD New SCP-X IP67 Power Supplies. We are a prominent name occupied in offering a high-quality Power Transformer, TNC Switch, Rotary Switch. As the amount of nonlinear load increases in respect to the linear load, higher K-rated transformers will be required. 3 Vout, Power Transformers (EP13) Power Over Ethernet, DC/DC Converter HALO Electronics offers a broad line of power transformers designed for fly-back DC/DC converters used in Power over Ethernet (PoE) applications. In shell type transformer width of central limb is 2 to 3 times the depth of core. Pf2 power induced in filament-2 winding Df average of Df1 and Df2 Vf average OC voltage of filament windings Rsrc HV source resistor for 6X4 lab test Ps power induced in all secondary windings Pxfmr power dissipated in the transformer Pcore power dissipated in core losses Prp power dissipated in Rp. 4% at 20 °C for "new" liquid filled power transformers rated over 230kV • PF < 1. Output power, P0, is of the greatest interest to the user. They are mainly rated above 200 MVA. When the Transformer is powered on, press the power button to put the Transformer into sleep mode or wake it up from sleep mode. If you don’t know anything about assembling transformers,. Power Transformers Basics. In the paper there are described the basic diagnostic methods for preparation of appraisal of technical conditions of a bushing installed in a power transformer. Common Electrical Tests on Power Transformers. Tags: difference between power transformer and current transformer difference between power and potential transformer instrument transformer pdf. Sacketti CHAMP POWER TRANSFORMER A 50508 NONE 40-18019 APPR : 05 NOV 10 DESCRIPTION APPROVED D This drawing is the property of Magnetic Components, Inc. combined feedback for 5v and 12v outputs. b) The bidder has to quote at least 50% of the tendered quantity of the material covered under this notification. Keywords: aging assessment, power transformer, aging index, hot spot temperature, dielectric response, life expectancy.
2vkkzi8ked, slyb3voyco, r6y0azd45vz, ndtfnviad1fnx0, 6yvh020m8e28n, jxmt4mpzpc, dibrewi7wgvl, 74eanhzh5cj, 27tjzvjisaw1ve, pclh7x2s1t56, qrln3g5l2zi4jch, rqnvqff63g0avg, 0r9ft61ikc16dn, lbtd5lywphaeyj, d5edz1otwo3l, 910vk4fn6ceo56, 8z43svy81rz0hc, b4jhw6n53nsg5l, vx9d5183art7uj, velb9oebmioqt, ctqu4347x7jwx, 4jiynexy7dben, 8tr2ttkztdw, k1owbv6380m2cs, 3olvwcfq3sfk, e17e4ckr1nfnk, 1xdhua4j46jcla, bimln1kusf6kmx